We are posting, in this blog, the papers presented at the conference organized by the International Institute of Informatics and Systemics (IIIS) on November 13-16, 2012 in Orlando, Florida, USA. The collocated events are the following:
- International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Applications ICTA 2012
- International Conference on Design and Modeling in Science, Education, and Technology: DeMset 2012
- International Conference on Education, Informatics, and Cybernetics: icEIC 2012
The purpose of posting the papers presented at these collocated events in this group blog is to allow post-publication comments and feedback that might generate improved new versions of papers published in the respective proceedings. More details in “A Systemic-Cybernetic Model for Scholarly and Professional Reviewing and Publishing”
The purpose of the ICTA 2012 Organizing Committee was stated as follows:
“To bring together researchers, developers, practitioners, consultants and users of Information and Communication Technologies, for intra- and interdisciplinary communication, to serve as a forum to present current and future work, solutions and problems in these fields, as well as in the relationships among these.
Consequently, efforts will be done in order to promote and to foster the analogical thinking through the inter-disciplinary communications that might emerge in a multi-disciplinary forum based on trans-disciplinary concepts and multi-disciplinary tools and technologies, which might be applied to a diversity of domains areas and practical domains.
Analytical and/or synthetic thinking will probably represent the infrastructural support of the papers that will be presented in ICTA 2012.
The ICTA 2012 Organizing Committee invites authors to submit their original and unpublished works, innovations, ideas based on analogical thinking, problems that require solutions, position papers, case studies, etc., in the fields of Information and Communication, as well as in the relationships among these and the different areas, disciplines, and practical domain where they are, or might be, applied.”
The purpose of the icEIC 2012 Organizing Committee was stated as follows:
“Relationships between Education/Training and Information/Communication Technologies (ICT) are continuously increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways, with original ideas, innovative tools, methodologies and synergies.
Education (cognitive development) and training (performance in a specific skill) are different but highly related notions. They have common means to achieve their objectives as it is the case of, for example, teaching, learning and e-learning. ICT are supporting both of them with an increasing frequency and effectiveness in more and more activities and domains.
Accordingly, the main purpose of icEIC 2012 Organizing Committee is to bring together researchers, innovators, professionals and practitioners from the three areas in order to 1) provide an intellectual platform to share their knowledge and experiences in a multi- and inter-disciplinary intellectual climate, 2) support the bridging process between education/training and ICT communities, and 3) foster interdisciplinary communications among the related domains.”
The purpose of the DeMset 2012 Organizing Committee was stated as follows:
Design and modeling are concepts and activities common to several disciplines in Science, Education, and Technology. Consequently, Design and modeling provide effective concepts, theories, methodologies, and tools for intra- and inter-disciplinary communications. The 3rd International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2012 might provide synergic relationships with a conference on Design and Modeling, and vice versa.
Attendees of these conferences might gain insights and have effective analogical thinking in both the formal and informal communication they usually have in meetings, symposia, and conferences. On the other hand research activities are also common to several disciplines in Science, Education, and Technology, as has reciprocal relationships with Design and Modeling. Descriptive models are used in Science, and prescriptive modeling activities are used in designing scientific activities, educational methodologies, and engineering or technological products. Consequently, Design, Modeling, and Research are transdiciplinary concepts that might serve well in disciplinary and inter-disciplinary communication.
Consequently, the purpose of organizing the 2nd International conference on Design and Modeling in Science, Education, and Technology: DeMSET 2012 is to promote intra- and inter-disciplinary communication by means of common concepts, methods, and tools used in different sub-disciplines and disciplines. Formal presentations might be made in disciplinary and interdisciplinary terms, while informal inter-disciplinary communication could produce insights and analogical thinking.
Design and Research in Science, Technology, and Education
The Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon affirmed that design is an essential ingredient of the Artificial Sciences and, consequently, a required process in professional activities, especially in Engineering, Architecture, Education and Business. Consequently, Design is also essential in educating in any discipline included in the Artificial Science. Ranulph Glanville, president of the American Society for cybernetics and expert in design theory, affirms that “Research is a variety of design. So do research as design.” “Design is key to research. Research has to be designed.” Frayling asserts that “doing science is much more like doing design.” “Both Design and Research are characterized by iterative cycles of generating ideas and confronting them with the world.” Both Science and Design use generative and evaluative thinking, but Science stresses the evaluative one (by logic, deduction, strict and mostly explicit definitions, verbal notations, etc.), while Design focuses on the generative one (which is usually associative, analogical, and inductive thinking, using loose definitions, and supported by visual representation as doodling, sketching, diagramming, prototyping, etc.) Consequently, design is essential ingredient in education in both: in Artificial and in Natural Science.
An increasing number of authors, especially in the last decade, are stressing the relationships between Design and Research. Design is, implicit or explicitly, an essential activity in Natural Science research, and an explicit backbone of the Artificial Sciences (Engineering, Architecture, etc.). In turn, Design, implicitly or explicitly, includes research activities. In Natural Sciences, design activities (hypothesis construction, experiment design, etc) are means used in research, with the purpose of generating knowledge to be evaluated (validated and/or verified). In Artificial Sciences research is one of the means used to generate the knowledge required for design effectiveness. In other words, Design is a mean for Research, and Research is a mean for Design, including educational research and educating for research.
Design and research are related via cybernetic loops in the context of means-ends logic. A visual schematization of the most fundamental relationships between Design and Research is shown below:
Design and Modeling
Design processes are characterized by sequential and/or iterative cycles of modeling, including cognitive and collaborative modeling, qualitative and quantitative modeling, hard and soft modeling, mathematical and verbal modeling, etc.
As it is known, modeling is essential in scientific and engineering activities. The complementary differences, including polar opposites, between Science and Engineering (between Natural and Artificial Sciences), cause a differentiation in modeling and models between both kinds of activities. The logic of Science is the logic of the “what-is”; the logic of Engineering is the logic of 1) “what-might-be”, “what-is-possible” and 2) “how to make it happen” (More details regarding this issue can be found at www.iiis.org/Nagib-Callaos/Engineering-and-Meta-Engineering). Consequently, modeling in Science is mostly oriented to theoretical or abstract semiotic representations of the cognitive representations (or constructions) of what scientists perceive in the world as it actually is, but modeling in Engineering is oriented to representing mental constructions of “what is possible” (“what is not yet”). Therefore, scientific modeling is a kind of meta-representational process (communicational representation of a cognitive representation of the world), while engineering modeling is a kind of pro-presentational activity (representation of what does not exist yet but which possibly might exist).
Both kinds of modeling might be qualitative, quantitative, or hybrid as it is in most cases. Explicit mathematical models are related to the empirical world by means of explicit or implicit qualitative bridges, which include verbal (for example, mathematically defined words) and visual (diagrams, for example) links to the real world, so the model can be useful for their potential users.
“Qualitative modeling concerns the representations and reasoning that people use to understand continuous aspects of the world…[A] variety of qualitative representations…have been developed for quantities and for relationships between them, providing a kind of qualitative mathematics.” . Quantitative Mathematics is related to what “MacLachlan has called a ‘mathematical technologist’™. Such a man will have a good knowledge of academic mathematics, but in addition will know how to apply this knowledge to obtain a complete approximate solution, with full numerical calculations, of an engineering or other problem. Much of modern academic mathematics is of a qualitative nature. The mathematical technologist…will supplement [mathematical formulations] with detailed quantitative knowledge, giving all the information required to any desired degree of approximation.” (“Technology or Quantitative Mathematics Technology,” Nature 158, 683-684 (16 November 1946), doi:10.1038/158683a0). We are using, the word mathematics, in the context of Engineering, with the senses of “qualitative mathematics” and “Mathematical Technology or Quantitative Mathematics”. The later is especially important in Engineering Modeling.
1Herbert A. Simon, 1996, The Sciences of the Artificial (Third Edition), Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, (p. 111)
2Ranulph Glaville, 2010, “Keeping Faith with the Design in Design Research,” previously in Designing Design Research 2: The Design Research Publication, Cyberbridge-4D Design/drse.html, Editor Alec Robertson, De Montfort University, Leicester, 26 February 1998.
3Accessed on January 17th, 2010 at http://nelly.dmu.ac.uk/4dd//drs9.html
Ranulph Glaville, 1999, “Researching Design and Designing Research”, Design Issues, vol 13 no 2. Accessed on December 18th, 2010 at http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/papers/glanville/glanville98-design.pdf
4C. Frayling, 1993, “Research in Art and Design,” Royal college of Art Research Papers, 1(1):1-5. Referenced by Pieter Jan Stappers, 2007, “Doing Design as part of Doing Research,” in Ralf Michel (Ed.), Design Research Now: essays and Selected Projects; Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag AG, Part of Springer Science; p. 82.
5Pieter Jan Stappers, 2007, Ibid.
6Pieter Jan Stappers, 2007, Ibid., p. 83.
7Kenneth D. Forbus, Sept. 2010, Qualitative Modeling, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science
8“Technology or Quantitative Mathematics Technology,” Nature 158, 683-684 (16 November 1946), doi:10.1038/158683a0